Implementation of transaction mechanism and optimistic lock in redis
- 2020-05-30 21:16:44
Redis transaction mechanism
In other databases, such as MySQL, a transaction represents a set of actions that either all or none of the actions are executed.
Redis's current support for things is relatively simple. Redis can only guarantee that commands in a transaction initiated by client can be executed continuously without any other client commands being inserted. When an client issues an multi command in a link, this link will enter a transaction context. The subsequent commands of this connection will not be executed immediately, but will be placed in a queue first. When the exec command is executed, redis will execute all the commands in the queue in order.
Multi Start transaction: 127.0.0.1:6379> multi # Open the transaction OK 127.0.0.1:6379> set age 15 # Data manipulation command QUEUED 127.0.0.1:6379> set age 20 # Data manipulation command QUEUED 127.0.0.1:6379> exec # Perform transactions 1) OK 2) OK 127.0.0.1:6379> get age "20" Discard : cancels a transaction, which essentially empties the command in the transaction queue and exits the transaction context, i.e., transaction rollback. 127.0.0.1:6379> get age "20" 127.0.0.1:6379> multi OK 127.0.0.1:6379> set age 25 QUEUED 127.0.0.1:6379> set age 30 QUEUED 127.0.0.1:6379> discard # Empty transaction queue OK 127.0.0.1:6379> get age "20"
Note the redis transaction problem: normally if one transaction in the transaction queue fails, the entire transaction is rolled back, but other transaction commands are not rolled back in redis.
Optimistic locking: most of redis is implemented using the data version (version) logging mechanism. Add a version id to the data. In database table-based version solutions, 1 is usually achieved by adding an version field to the database table. This version 1 is read out with the data as it is read, and it is incremented by 1 when it is later updated. At this point, the version number of the submitted data is compared with the current version number of the corresponding record in the database table. If the submitted data version number is larger than the current version number of the database, it will be updated; otherwise, it will be considered as expired data.
watch monitoring: the watch command monitors a given key, and if the monitored key has changed since the watch call, the entire transaction will fail. You can also call watch to monitor multiple key multiple times, which adds an optimistic lock to the specified transaction key. Note that watch's key is valid for the entire link, as is the transaction. If the link is broken, monitoring and transactions are automatically cleared. Of course, the exex, discard, unwatch commands automatically clear all the monitoring in the link.
Implementation of optimistic locking in redis:
If we have one key of age, we turn on two session to assign age.
127.0.0.1:6379> get age "10" 127.0.0.1:6379> watch age # Open to age Key monitoring (monitors whether other operations are correct age Key has modified operation) OK 127.0.0.1:6379> multi # Enable transaction context OK
127.0.0.1:6379> set age 20 OK 127.0.0.1:6379> get age "20"
Directly operate age in session2
Then look at session1:
127.0.0.1:6379> set age 30 # in session2 In the operation age After, we are in session1 Medium continue operation age QUEUED 127.0.0.1:6379> exec # Perform transactions return nil The transaction did not execute successfully. (nil) 127.0.0.1:6379> get age "20"
Here we find that the transaction failed because the data version in session1 is already smaller than the data version in the database. This is the optimistic lock in redis.
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